Spices — «specio» mean, in a translation from Latin, «a variety of products, something inspiring respect».
Also we believe, it is not groundless. Plants which call «aromatic» and are spices, and their mixes usually are called as spices also. But is it correct to use spice and mixspice words as synonyms? There are different points of view. The majority of experts and consumers spice and mixspice, including their synonyms do not distinguish the name. There is a point of view, that spices represent exclusively vegetable products, and mixspices are various, vegetable and not a phytogenesis gustative aromatic substances. Spices can be a natural origin and synthesized. We believe, that spices are parts of spice plants, their exsiccated parts are more exact, in them aromatic and spicy substances which contain define their properties.
They are applied as seasoning to food, the conserving agents of products which are toning up the additives — certain natural power of that gustatory qualities of food improve, stimulate its digestion and mastering. In particular, spices and spices in cookery apply to following purposes: to add aroma and taste of a dish, and sometimes and to generate it, to deposit the necessary gustative and aromatic tints; to create taste and aroma at a foodstuff, that is spices use as flavoring agents; to level negative gustative and an aromatic properties of a product of a dish; to change a kind, color, a smell, taste of a product; to increase a storage time of a dish (product); to raise comprehensibility and food value of food.
Spices, it is necessary to note, vitaminize food as contain vitamins in if it is possible so to say, the concentrated kind (for example, greengrocery of fennel, a parsley, a celery pepper red and black). Spices excellent conserving agents, therefore in public catering and in house conditions of spice are applied to manufacturing of pickles, fermentations, a pickles, compotes, tinctures, syrups, kvass. The majority of sauces is contained by spices and spices, in syrups add spices. In general it is possible to tell, that in those dishes, aroma and which taste it is expressed poorly or requires updating, for example, dishes from the majority of vegetables, rice add spices. In modern cookery it is possible to receive tens gustative tints of the same dish, adding in it spices in various proportions, and as spices — spice mixtures.
Properties of spices
The ground spices possessing pleasant and steady aroma and burning taste, apparently, is the first substances which the mankind has learnt to grow up, prepare and use as flavor additives to food. There is an opinion, that spices have come to cookery much earlier salts. Concept the spices identical on a scope with spices are formulated as «various flavor additives to the food, changing its aroma, taste, color». At preparation of various dishes are applied as spice and spice. Essential oils and other useful substances containing in spices and spices promote improvement of taste of prepared dishes and raise comprehensibility of food. If to distinguish spices and spices under concept of «spice» it is possible to unite different enough substances which general property is ability to influence taste of prepared dishes, their smell and color. Many spices — remarkable conserving agents. So, the meat poured by pepper and exsiccated long does not spoil. Plants of spice and a mix of these plants have in many respects created culinary world culture. Properties of spices were known since olden days.
People grew up plants of spice according to archeologists for 4400 years BC On the Egyptian tablets age about 3000 l. B.C., it is spoken about cultivation of spices, manufacture of an anise, cardamom, sesame, a saffron, and as to clove spice. Ancient civilisations owned culture of cultivation of spices, knew useful properties of spices. For example, 5000 years ago Ácorus was already known and it was applied in Egypt. Archeologists find the Egyptian papyruses dated in 2 millenium B.C. It- recipes, in which names of spices are specified and just as to add in prepared food of a plant of spice — an anise, cumin, a mustard seed, mint, a saffron, spice a basil, a wormwood, cinnamon, spice ginger and some other spices. Spices are found in burial places of the Egyptian Pharaohs, and on walls — pictures of spices. And historical documents are found in China with the name of spices, the description корицы, useful properties of spice the cloves dated on 2500 B.C. B.C. spice Chineses began to use some hundreds years in cookery.
East spice Star anise (Anisumstellatum) was known in southern China for some hundreds years B.C. Spice was applied for cooking dishes and beverages. Star anise has got to Europe about 16 centuries, because of the unique aroma and taste has quickly won popularity. Europeans added this spice in sweet dishes, a batch. Archaeological opening testify, that during this period the Chinese emperor Hovangti applied many kinds of spices and spices, and as spice mixtures in cookery and medicine. Spices have favorable physiological an effect on a human body. The use in food of spices promotes more plentiful allocation of digestive juices. As spices positively influence a metabolism in an organism, stimulating enzymatic processes. Glycosides, substances containing the sugar, present at spices deduce carcinogens and ballast substances from a human body.
As these substances possess bactericidal, and some of them antioxidant properties. Therefore spices — an excellent conserving agent of a foodstuff. Spices give to food new gustative tints, that positively affects functioning of a digestive organs and all organism. A considerable quantity of spices possess medical properties. They promote clarification of a human body from a various sort of pollution, help restoration of normal functioning of immune system, stimulate exchange processes, possess many other things useful properties, for example, some spices as we spoke, stimulate enzymatic processes in a human body. That is why a part from them are applied in medicine as medical products. In the spice past ordered sick of various illnesses as medicines. As not лишне to notice, that the use of spices and spices stimulates a tone, well influences an emotional spirit of the person, improves food mastering, exchange functions of an organism. But we will return to historic facts. In many ancient cultures spices were known.
Secrets of preparation of spices knew in the Ancient Greece. Greeks used the majority of spices of the world made nowadays, the anise, a coriander, cinnamon cumin, laurels, laurels, a thyme, and as the most expensive at all times, faultless spice saffron was used in food. More in detail about spice a saffron. We consider, what exactly a saffron, because of its unique properties, the fabulous price, and first of all aromatic it is possible to name spice faultless. But we will return to history of occurrence of spices. Hippocrates in the products mentions many names of spices, speaks about advantage of spices from the medical point of view. In Ancient Rome spices were used in cookery, medicine. As spices were calculation means at trading operations. Romans in many respects borrowed culture of the use of spices ancient Greeks. In our country of spice from the east have appeared late enough, and mint, fennel, a horse-radish, garlic, an anise, growing in Russia were used in food since the most ancient times. Only in 16 century to Russia merchants have delivered cardamon, pepper, cinnamon, ginger, a clove, ginger, a saffron, star anise. At this time useful properties of spices, both culinary, and medical were known. Spices always were highly appreciated. On the earth the most expensive foodstuff is spice a saffron, one kg of a saffron costs some thousand American dollars. And the saffron in grammes is on sale. Because of spices wars inflamed. World spices.
History of spices
Historically spices and spices have come to Europe from Asia — mothers of spices. Word-combinations of spice and east spices were until recently synonyms as 90 % of world wholesale trade occupied with spices spices from the east — east spices. The east was and remains a world bench of spices. Almost all modern kinds and names of spices are grown up and made in the east. It is possible to tell, that east spices — the most quality and extended among the present, natural spices — the Indian, Pakistan spices are the quality standard. Manufacture spices and world trade by spices in the east has arisen. Phoenicia was the first big exporter of east spices on the world market and in particular, to Europe.
The city the Shooting gallery was the international stock exchange of east spices, widely trading in spices and spices in bulk in the world market. However in 332 BC it has been won Alexander the Great. From now on world trade by east spices has concentrated in Alexandria. Subsequently in spices Romans widely traded, and pepper cost more expensively gold. In 11 century the market of spices was monopolised by Turks-seldzhuki, having seized Asia Minor. In Europe in the Middle Ages demand for east spices and spices was very high. Gold often replaced in spice calculations. They served as a measure and the weight standard. For example, in the thirteenth century of 1000 grains of spice of a black pepper should weigh precisely 460 gramme and a pepper measure changed for a gold measure.
One pound of a nutmeg changed for one cow or three sheep. It is necessary to notice, that before Great French revolution in France the most exact were considered trading as spices and standards of scales and measures were defined by dealers spices. Seasonings and spices were added in many known beverages of that time, in wine, beer, сбитни, kvass. In spices in bulk in medieval Europe traded for some reasons in Venice — this medieval city shop of spices, and at this shop of spices there were almost all names of spices which we meet today. Columbus’s searching for a sea way to India well-known travel — biggest the supplier of east spices on the world market, on a twist of fate has opened to Europe a way to spice to pepper, spice to cinnamon, vanilla spice, chilli and to set of other spices.
The way to the Indian spices on the European market has opened Васко де Din. The sea way from India to Europe has eliminated monopoly for trade in spices of the Arabs who were buying up spices. Today India became the largest supplier of spices and spices in the world market. The Indian spices occupy today 20-25 % of all world market of natural spices. Quality of the Indian spices and their useful properties define steady demand for them. The requirement in пряно aromatic plants is annual raises. The world market of spices constantly grows. Useful properties of spices are irreplaceable in medicine, the food and cosmetic industry, some other branches.
Names of spices Kinds of spices Classification of spices
Spices classify as follows: first, subdivide into groups: 1. To a geographical sign of spice share on classical, used everywhere and national or local. Local: seeds a nutmeg, mustard, fennel and similar; fruits — vanilla, an anise, star anis, a coriander, cardamon, a coriander, pepper; — a saffron, a clove spice; leaves — a rosemary, a bay leaf; a bark — cinnamon; roots — spice a curcuma, ginger, a galangal. 2. Classical, local: vegetables spicy — a ramson, onion, a parsley, garlic, a celery, a parsnip, a horse-radish; grasses spicy — a wormwood, a coriander, fennel, an anise, cumin, mint, fenhel, a tarragon, a basil, a balm, an oregano, a juniper, marjoram. 3. Spices combined. 4. Spices natural and artificial are a vanillin, a cinnamon extract synthetic, pulverous replacers cinnamon pulverous, a nutmeg, a clove, saffron.5. The processed spices — synthetic the spices created by biotechnologies it is replacers of a clove, vanilla, a saffron. Spices combined it is mixes of classical spices, with addition of various flavouring agents — pickles, hop plants-suneli, a jelly, and others. The processed spices in shape emulsions, essences, compositions, granules etc. For example garlic assortment this set of names — slashed, grained, in a kind emulsions, with salt and others are issued. On various physical and chemical parametres define quality of spices and property of spices and spices, characteristics of spices.
Synthetic spices, extracts. The characteristic of spices. Seasonings and spices always were one of the most convenient and compact trading cargoes possessing very high value on one unit of weight. Therefore trade in spices with other things being equal brings in the greatest income. Prior to the beginning of the XX-th century because of this property of spices there was no necessity for manufacturing of concentrates, extracts for even большего reduction of their weight and volume at transportation is it was not economically expedient. However extracts of spices with unique tastes which were unlike tastes of separate spices so there were extracts of spices which possessed unique aroma and taste were created. As an example application can serve in the American and English cookery Rouenian an extract created by the French culinary specialists, the Dresden extract, the spicy salts, found. All these extracts are spice mixtures in the concentrated liquid kind.
Some drops of such extract are enough for a food copper. Occurrence of extracts, their wide circulation have been caused by convenience of utilisation in public catering and simplicity of transportation. Spices and spices though are small on weight, however are difficult applicable in public catering because of their considerable quantity demanded for cooking for the big number people. We will tell, preparation of four rations of soup needs 5 sheets of laurels on a casserole for preparation of the same soup on change of workers on factory, if to adhere to these proportions, 1000 sheets of laurels are necessary.
These problems also have dared application of extracts which have driven out classical spices of public catering system. Classical spices remained in the use basically in kitchen house: spice pepper, fennel, spice cinnamon, a bay leaf, chervil, cumin, a celery and others. Necessity of application of spices for public catering stimulated scientists to create their extracts: an anethum oil, a laurels powder, salt celery and others, that has allowed to replace 1000 sheets of laurels with a table spoon of an extract. Today the food-processing industry has mastered release of numerous extracts, lets out, for example, an anethum oil, a bay powder, clove oil, anise and mustard-seed oil. These products are applied in canning, food, distillery industry. The cinnamon extract is issued for requirements of a confectionery industry, and it completely a synthetic product. In 1970 the saffron extract in our country has been received. The yield of spice increases an extract in 5 times. Certainly it is possible to apply extracts of spices and houses if to neglect complexity of a dosage. It is necessary to notice what to dress it is necessary ready-to-eat meals as the heat decomposes extracts of spices. Thus taste of a dish spoils. As a rule, extracts use for at preparation of lettuces, snacks, avenue, that is cold dishes where is absent having heated up and risk of decomposition of an extract.
Spice industry. A technology of production. A technology of production of spices in general consists of following processes: the plucking of plants of spices, their sorting, drying, marks, packing. Some plants of spice do not grind. On an example of widespread spice mustard we will consider stage by stage technology of its manufacture. From a powder mustard mustard develop by mixing together with vinegar, water, sugar, salt, vegetable oil, nuts receive a mustard flour. Depending on used additives receive various kinds mustard: «Russian», Table; » Fragrant «,» With a horse-radish «a various sharpness of taste.
As mustard intends for the use in food as seasoning, and for utilisation in the food-processing industry, public catering. Spices has features in terms of their plucking, technology and methods of drying, the plucking, packing. At infringement of process quality of finished goods can strongly vary. To quality of raw materials the special attention is usually paid. If the local raw materials correspond to standards and specifications, its application as it is necessary to consider enough of raw materials made in region is supposed. Alternatively, the truth, as a rule, more expensive, spices imported and sold in bulk in Russia from the European and Asian countries act. The raw materials should pass in many cases an additional sanitization, a fermentation, drying as traditional Asian suppliers not always observe sanitarian norms at a spice industry. So thereupon the countries of EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY have made decision to spend degermination of such spices. Spices during short time subject to influence high 140 ° From temperature.
Spices at retail
Packing of spices. Properties of spices define packing of these goods. At sale in retail trade of spice pack to 100 г in net weight. In: packages from a paper, packages from parchment paper, a cardboard, a glassine, the imitation parchment paper thermocooking of combined materials; unary packages from heat-sealing, on the basis of a paper of materials, film materials, materials on the basis of a foil; Spices except a vanilla saffron, star anis, cinnamon, a nutmeg pack into the double packages having external paper a package and internal from a glassine. To spices apply glass jars with caps from plastic. Packages and packs with spices stack in shipping container, boxes from a corrugated cardboard; wooden returnable container; to food-processing industry production apply board boxes, weight (net) 20 and less kg. In boxes from corrugated board stack glass jars, laying to longitudinal and cross-section linings. So, at sale of spices in bulk, a saffron pack into tin cans on 2 — 5 kg. And in at sale of spices at retail a saffron pack in test tubes on 1 gramme.
The pimento comes to retail packed in cardboard boxes, the packages laminated by polyethylene in weight of 15-25 And this spice in bulk is on sale packaged on 1-2 kg. Spice pepper, red ground in wholesale arrives packaged to 3-5 kg. Spices then are on sale in much more capacious packing. Retail of spices depends on appearance of packing. By estimations of experts in marketing of 70 % of sales have more likely pulse character, spices in bulk certainly are on sale in volume and practical container. At retail packing bright and attractive promotes a choice of the buyer. At retail of spices on packing should be accurately both the name is largely written and there should be a beautiful image of spice or spice. Some firms trading in spices and spices in bulk practise firm registration of the goods arriving both in retail and in wholesale network. For example, green tints on packing — a soup spices and lettuces, yellow for a bird and meat, red for hot dishes. Spices and the spices used in cookery in the form of dry-mixes of seeds of plants contain many essential oils in the contents. It strongly limits the list of materials, possible for utilisation by manufacture for them optimum packing. So, usual polymeric slicks are not capable to keep long enough these volatiles owing to what the prepackaging operation and storage of spices in polyetheline to packing worsens properties of spices, reduces goods shelf lifes. Therefore, basically by manufacture of packing for spices and spices use an aluminium foil and the various multilayered paper, polymeric or combined packings.
That is packing with good barrier characteristics, tightness, protection from influence of oxygen and ultraviolet radiation. The packing executed from such materials considerably increases storage times of spices that is important at trade in spices in bulk. If to speak about forms — the packing factor 90 % of all spices and spices are packed into various packages. Spices in bulk are on sale in average and great volume packings, that is it is the packing containing from 40 to 300 gramme of a product, and spices at retail are on sale in packing in volume from 70 till 100 There are also exceptions, to expensive spices apply small weighting at sale of spices wholesale and retail — less than 40 It is possible to tell, that is now popular at sale of spices at retail packing about a zip-lokom, packages doj-pak, PET-BANKS. These forms of packings of spices allow to make their storage more convenient and preservation of properties by longer. As a rule, packing for spices do corresponding to a place of their utilisation. So, for example, packing for a grill «Stolers» because of an applied plastic hermetic can well protects a product from a moisture that is important on the nature. Summarising, it is possible to tell, that packing for spices and spices should not pass air, a smell, a moisture. This main requirement by working out of packing for spices.
The main consumer property of spices — aroma. If packing is not capable to keep it essential oils evaporate, spice loses the properties. The moisture transforms fine spice into an unusable lump. All above-stated data the important packings by working out both for sale of spices in bulk and for retail, from — for poor-quality packings profitableness from trade in spices is considerably reduced. Transportation of spices. Since the most ancient times caravans with spices from Asia came to Europe. Because of the high price (comparable to gold and silk) transportation of spices was very dangerous. Now raised security measures are expedient for using only by transportation especially valuable spices, such as a saffron. Spices are convenient trading cargo. Them simply enough to transport because of good weight and volume characteristics. As a rule, both volume and weight at them insignificant, thus transport unit contains a considerable quantity of doses of spices, and an indicator of the relation of the price and volume + weight is high. Observance of rules of transportation of spices will keep their consumer properties. The special attention by transportation spices should be turned on maintenance of an optimum temperature mode and level of humidity of cargo. As special attention should be turned on observance of sanitary-and-hygienic norms.
Transport for transportation of the collected, exsiccated, cleared, packed spices should be cleared and disinfected. Containers should be checked up on humidity, are if necessary sewed. It is necessary to support good ventilation of air in a transport equipment. Presence of strong off-aromas is inadmissible. At sharp change of an ambient temperature it is necessary to take measures to avoidance of condensate formations. Storage of spices. Useful properties of spices, quality of spices, their safety directly depends on observance of norms and rules of storage of the goods. Storage of spices and spices.
Spices can be carried to the group of the goods characterised by raised absorption — that is ability to imbibe a moisture. Spices — the exsiccated, floured powder has low humidity, porous, that does substance highly hygroscopic, and as capable to absorb ambient air smells. Vaporisation of the essential oils containing in spices, their oxidation, saturation by a moisture promote loss of fragrance, taste, a consistence, that or worsens consumer properties of spices or does the goods unusable at the use. Usually, to keep consumer properties of spices and spices them store in the aerated pure, dry stowages, passed a sanitization, at temperature nearby 20 ° with, relative humidity no more than 70-75 %. At storage of spices it is necessary to consider, what goods are stored by a number — it should be without a smell, have storage conditions similar to spices. Decrease in consumer properties of spices at long-term storage is expressed, first of all in reduction or disappearance of aroma because of vaporisation of essential oils creating it. Taste of spices, as a rule, remains longer as alkaloids, basically, пиперин, are substances more proof to external influence, that causes more long-term storage of separate spices. If in a spice essential oil is available more eugenol the goods are kept longer by aroma and taste.
If to speak about long-term storage it is more preferable not to grind spice, to store entirely, carrying out a grinding and packing in process of sale of goods. It is important for remembering at the organisation of storage of the goods at sale of spices in bulk., As a rule, the commodity stock should be equal in shops to a sales volume in a month, there should be various kinds of spices. Following storage times of the packaged spices are established: at utilisation of polythene bags — 12 months, at utilisation of the combined polymeric materials and an aluminium foil — 18 months. Spices in polyethylene container store 4 months, in packages from the combined materials half a year. Minimisation of losses at warehousing of spices. The quantitative losses of the goods caused by natural processes, occurring in the goods and as inevitable losses of the goods at warehouse operations name goods natural losses. With reference to spices, the principal causes leading to natural losses of the goods are reduction of weight owing to moisture vaporisation, — shrinkage; aeration, volatilization spice components, for example essential oils, spillage, crumbling, penetration of spice into packing, damage of container with spices. Dispersion is peculiar only to spices with very small grinding, there are at the expense of emission of a part of a product in a kind dust-like particles during packing, weighings and other warehouse operations. Spillage is observed at long-term storage and transportation owing to what and spices lose spices in volume. Volatilization the goods — loss of qualities of the goods at the expense of vaporisation of volatile components of spice in atmosphere. With reference to spices, volatilization essential oils — the basic substances forming aroma of spice are subject basically. Thus, taking into consideration specific properties of spices and their high value, probably to formulate requirements on achievement of minimisation of natural losses of the goods that is especially important at wholesale of spices.
Quality of spices
Standardization of spices in the Russian Federation. In Russia, since 2002 there is a transition to modern system of certification of standardization of the goods in which basis lay that. Regulations. Since 2002 GOST are not obligatory, their observance is left to the discretion of the manufacturer. At the USSR there was an obligatory standardization of spices, manufacturers at preparation of spices were guided by GOST 28875-90, GOST 28880-90. SEASONINGS And SPICES. ACCEPTANCE And ANALYSIS METHODS, GOST 28750-90. SPICES. PACKING, MARKS, TRANSPORTATION And STORAGE. GOST 29049-91. SPICE CINNAMON. SPICES. CINNAMON. SPECIFICATIONS. Till now technical regulations of preparation of spices yet have no binding force. Separate manufacturers of spices and spices develop the standards, all from them is far not promote reception of the quality goods. In Soviet time when GOST was obligatory to observance, and spices let out spices how the standard that served as production quality assurance demanded. Acceptance of technical regulations of a spice industry to obligatory observance should affect quality of let out spices positively.